Monday, 24 Jun 2019

Everything you Need to know about Republic Day

Republic Day

What is Republic Day and why it’s Celebrated?

  • Republic Day honours the date on which the Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950, at 10:18AM replacing the Government of India Act (1935) as the governing document of India.
  • Indian Constitution came into effect especially on 26th of January. Because 26th of January, 1930 is an anniversary of Purna Swaraj Day.

Constitution of India

  • The Constitution of India is the longest written Constitution all over the world (which cannot be read in a single day); it has incorporated “448 Articles in 22 Parts, 12 Schedules and 97 Amendments”.
  • Indian Constitution is written by the Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (Dr. B.R. Ambedkar). He is known as the father of Indian Constitution.
  • The Constitution of India took around 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to be completed.
  • Two copies of the Indian Constitution were hand-written, one in English and one in Hindi.
  • Both hand-written copies of the Indian Constitution were signed on 24th of January in 1950 by around 308 members of the Assembly.
  • Both of the originally hand-written Indian Constitution copies are kept safely in the helium-filled cases at the Library of Parliament House.
  • After inception of the Indian Constitution, around 94 amendments (alterations) have been done.
  • Indian Constitution is only calligraphed and not printed and only 1000 copies are written till date.
  • Dr. Bhimrao Ambedakar was the chairman of Indian constitution draft committee.
  • Constitution of India is considered as one of the best constitutions in the world since there have been only 102 amendments till 2018 which makes it as one of the robust constitutions.

Ideology & Inspiration for Constitution of India

  • Division of power between union and state has been taken from the Canadian constitution
  • Fundamental duty from Soviet Union
  • Directorial elements from constitution of Ireland
  • Republican administration system from French constitution
  • The emergency carriage system from Germany constitution.
  • The Preamble of Indian Constitution has been inspired by the preamble of USA which also states “We the people…”.

National Anthem

  • Jana Gana Mana (National Anthem) was written first in Bengali language by the Rabindranath Tagore.
  • Jana Gana Mana (National Anthem) was first translated into Hindi language by the Abid Ali in 1911 which was later officially adopted as National Anthem of India in 1950 on 24th of January.
  • The lyrics and music of Indian national anthem was given by Rabindranath Tagore in 1911.
  • National Anthem of India was first sung in the meeting of Indian National Congress, Calcutta on 27th of December, 1911.
  • National Anthem of India takes 52 seconds to sing or play.
  • The first President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad took oath (at Durbar Hall of government house) first time on 26th of January in 1950.

Rituals of Flag Hoisting

  • 21 gun salutes are given every year when the President of India hoists the national flag on republic Day to mark the honour.
  • There is rule that the President of country would address on the Republic Day whereas the Prime Minister of the country would address on the Independence Day.
  • Republic Day celebration of India lasts after three days by singing the song ‘Abide by Me’ (it is a most popular tune and favourite of Mahatma Gandhi, a Christian hymn) during the Beating Retreat.
  • Beating Retreat ceremony is held on 29th of January at Vijay Chowk with the performance of Indian Army, Air Force and Navy bands. It marks the end of Republic day celebrations in India.

First Republic Day Parade

Tribute & Rewards

  • A garland is placed at Amar Jawan Jyoti at every national occasion by the Prime Minister to pay tribute to the brave soldiers of India who had sacrificed their lives in fighting for the Indian Independence.
  • Republic day of India is a great when all the deserving candidates are honoured with bravery awards such as Param Veer Chakra, Maha Veer Chakra, Veer Chakra, Kirti Chakra and Ashoka Chakra.
  • The custom of offering the gallantry awards to the children was started by the government of India in 1957 for bravery achievements of children in different fields on the republic day.

Important Decisions taken on Republic Day

  • On 26th of January in 1965 Hindi language was declared as our national language of India.
  • On 26th January, 1950, the Lion of Ashoka at Sarnath was chosen as the National Emblem of India.
  • Vande Mataram was adopted on 24th January 1950 as the National Song of India. The song is taken from the poem of the patriotic novel ‘Anandmath’ written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. Only the two verses of the poem have been adopted as the national song of India.
  • The word Royal was dropped from Royal Air Force and it became Indian Air Force on this day.
  • The peacock was declared as the national bird on this day in 1963.

Facts of 1950 Republic day

  • Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the nation on the radio on the eve of the first Republic Day.
  • On that day, four Param Vir Chakras were awarded for gallantry during Jammu and Kashmir operations. Two of them were posthumous awards to Major Somnath Sharma, India’s first PVC winner, and Naik Jadunath Singh. Capt Rama Raghoba Rane, Hawaldar Karam Singh received their Param Vir Chakra awards personally.
    More than 100 aircraft from the Indian Air Force flew past the parade. Harvards, Dakotas, Liberators, Tempests, Spitfires and jet planes participated in the fly past
  • 26th of January was decided to be celebrated every year as the “Swaraj Diwas” in 1950.
  • President Sukarno of Indonesia was the first chief guest at the first Republic Day Celebration of India on 26th of January, 1950.

first-republic-day-parade_1950

first-republic-day-parade_1950

Image Source: indiatoday

Chief guests since 1950

  • President Sukarno of Indonesia was the first chief guest at the first Republic Day Celebration of India on 26th of January, 1950.
  • Malik Gulam Mohammed (first governor-general of Pakistan) was the first chief guest of the Rajpath parade in 1955 (Republic Day Parade was started first time).
  • The chief guest on republic day celebration, 1961 was Queen Elizabeth from Britain.

2019 – “President Cyril Ramaphosa” from South Africa invited for the 2nd time.

2018 – Ten guests-Heads of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) states

2018 – “Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah” from Brunei
2018 – “Prime Minister Hun Sen” from Cambodia invited for the 2nd time.
2018 – “President Joko Widodo” from Indonesia invited for the 3rd time.
2018 – “Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith” from Laos
2018 – “Prime Minister Najib Razak” from Malaysia
2018 – “State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi” from Myanmar
2018 – “President Rodrigo Roa Duterte” from Philippines
2018 – “Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong” from Singapore invited for the 2nd time.
2018 – “Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha” from Thailand invited for the 2nd time.
2018 – “Prime Minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc” from Vietnam invited for the 2nd time.

2017 – “Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan” from United Arab Emirates
2016 – “President François Hollande” from France invited for the 5th time.
2015 – “President Barack Obama” from United States
2014 – “Prime Minister Shinzo Abe” from Japan invited for the 2nd time.
2013 – “King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck” from Bhutan invited for the 4th time.
2012 – “Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra” from Thailand
2011 – “President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono” from Indonesia invited for the 2nd time.
2010 – “President Lee Myung Bak” from South Korea
2009 – “President Nursultan Nazarbayev” from Kazakhstan
2008 – “President Nicolas Sarkozy” from France invited for the 4th time.
2007 – “President Vladimir Putin” from Russia invited for the 4th time.
2006 – “King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud” from Saudi Arabia
2005 – “King Jigme Singye Wangchuck” from Bhutan invited for the 3rd time.
2004 – “President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva” from Brazil invited for the 2nd time.
2003 – “President Mohammed Khatami” from Iran
2002 – “President Cassam Uteem” from Mauritius invited for the 3rd time.
2001 – “President Abdelaziz Bouteflika” from Algeria
2000 – “President Olusegun Obasanjo” from Nigeria invited for the 2nd time.
1999 – “King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev” from Nepal invited for the 2nd time.
1998 – “President Jacques Chirac” from France invited for the 3rd time.
1997 – “Prime Minister Basdeo Panday” from Trinidad and Tobago
1996 – “President Fernando Henrique Cardoso” from Brazil
1995 – “President Nelson Mandela” from South Africa
1994 – “Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong” from Singapore
1993 – “Prime Minister John Major” from United Kingdom invited for the 5th time.
1992 – “President Mário Soares” from Portugal
1991 – “President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom” from Maldives
1990 – “Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth” from Mauritius invited for the 2nd time.
1989 – “General Secretary Nguyen Van Linh” from Vietnam
1988 – “President J. R. Jayewardene” from Sri Lanka invited for the 2nd time.
1987 – “President Alan Garcia” from Peru
1986 – “Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou” from Greece
1985 – “President Raúl Alfonsín” from Argentina
1984 – “King Jigme Singye Wangchuck” from Bhutan invited for the 2nd time.
1983 – “President Shehu Shagari” from Nigeria
1982 – “King Juan Carlos I” from Spain
1981 – “President Jose Lopez Portillo” from Mexico
1980 – “President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing” from France invited for the 2nd time.
1979 – “Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser” from Australia
1978 – “President Patrick Hillery” from Ireland
1977 – “First Secretary Edward Gierek” from Poland
1976 – “Prime Minister Jacques Chirac” from France
1975 – “President Kenneth Kaunda” from Zambia

1974 – Two Guests

1974 – “President Josip Broz Tito” from Yugoslavia invited for the 2nd time.
1974 – “Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike” from Sri Lanka

1973 – “President Mobutu Sese Seko” from Zaire
1972 – “Prime Minister Seewoosagur Ramgoolam” from Mauritius
1971 – “President Julius Nyerere” from Tanzania
1970 – “King of the Belgians Baudouin” from Belgium
1969 – “Prime Minister Todor Zhivkov” from Bulgaria

1968 – Two Guests

1968 – “Chairman Alexei Kosygin” from Soviet Union invited for the 3rd time.
1968 – “President Josip Broz Tito” from Yugoslavia

1967 – “King Mohammed Zahir Shah” from Afghanistan
1965 – “Food and Agriculture Minister Rana Abdul Hamid” from Pakistan invited for the 2nd time.
1964 – “Chief of Defence Staff Lord Louis Mountbatten” from United Kingdom invited for the 4th time.
1963 – “King Norodom Sihanouk” from Cambodia
1962 – “Prime Minister Viggo Kampmann” from Denmark
1961 – “Queen Elizabeth II” from United Kingdom invited for the 3rd time.
1960 – “Chairman Kliment Voroshilov” from Soviet Union invited for the 2nd time.
1959 – “Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip” from United Kingdom invited for the 2nd time.
1958 – “Marshall Ye Jianying” from China
1957 – “Minister of Defence Georgy Zhukov” from Soviet Union

1956 – Two Guests

1956 – “Chancellor of the Exchequer R. A. Butler” from United Kingdom
1956 – “Chief Justice Kōtarō Tanaka” from Japan

1955 – “Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad” from Pakistan invited for the First guest for parade at Rajpath  time.
1954 – “King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck” from Bhutan
1951 – “King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah” from Nepal
1950 – “President Sukarno” from Indonesia

Other Facts:

  • Prior to 1955, Republic day of India were not celebrated on Rajpath prior to 1955.
  • Prior to 1955 (until 1954), the Indian republic day celebrations were performed on the “Kingsway”, “Lal Kila”, and “Ramlila Ground”.
  • Every year on the Republic Day eve the Rashtrapati Bhawan gets illuminated by electronic lightings and recently the building has been illuminated with dynamic façade lightings which change its color every few seconds to a 1.6 crore colour combinations.
  • It was raining on the day the constitution was being signed which most people considered as good luck for the country.

Sources: indiacelebrating ;  wikipedia

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